Butterfly fall collors

PWP NEWSLETTER
Fall 2011

Written by Ben Alexandro,
Outreach Coordinator, Cacapon Institute
PWP Newsletter Issues:
Fall 2011 || Spring 2011

Articles:

-Information Exchange

-WIPs in the Bay Watershed

-Mindless Mowing and Gray Infrastructure

- ULTRA- Ex

- Jefferson County Urban Tree Canopy Initiative

-People of the PWP: Judy Okay

-Potomac River Cleanup:

-Terminology Key

Information Exchange

8th Information Exchange: Using Forestry to Meet TMDL Goals

The June 28th PWP Information Exchange in Thurmont Maryland was filled with individuals and experts from over 40 organizations. 

(Read this Story)
line

19th century london

Watershed Implementation Plans around the Bay:
The World's Most Important Restoration Initiative?

Mike Galvin of ULTRA-Ex declared that the Bay TMDL WIP process is a new innovation in urban improvement.  He warned that in the long run the only way so many humans can live in such concentrated areas is if we figure out how to better use our natural resources so they are sustained, not destroyed.

(Read this Story)
line

 

 

 

Winter PWP Information Exchange


RSVP Today

Making Projects Successful in a Changing Climate

 

 

 

 

 

 

According to Judy Okay, “The Potomac Watershed Partnership is a way to get projects completed and restoration on land that any one group can’t do alone.  PWP becomes more than what everyone is working on. It is more than that.  PWP changes quality of life.  It makes a change in the way people approach things.”

 

 

"mindless mowing"

Mindless Mowing and Gray Infrastructure

There is a growing trend in the suburbs to cover as much land as possible with manicured monoculture turf grass which often become sources of pollution in the watershed.  Mike Galvin described how the landscaping industry can be transformed into an industry that builds and maintains green infrastructure and Low Impact Development (LID).

(Read this Story)
line


Image from DC Life Magazine

ULTRA- Ex

The Urban Long-Term Research Areas: Exploratory Research Projects (ULTRA-Ex) provides researchers like Mike Galvin support to study the dynamic interactions between people and natural ecosystems in urban settings.  Mike is looking at two cities in the Chesapeake Bay Watershed to see how their urban tree canopies and the local environment affect the quality of life of their residents.

(Read this Story)
line

PWP Aid Jefferson County with Urban Tree Canopy Initiative

PWP partners spearheaded the development of a UTC initiative that will not only help Jefferson County and its municipalities reach their Chesapeake Bay TMDL Goals, but will also provide enormous benefits to the local communities.

(Read this Story)
line

Growing PWP

People of the PWP: Judy Okay

Judy Okay is an inspirational leader and innovator who has been with PWP since its inception in 2000.  She helped make the partnership possible and continues to breathe new life into the PWP.

(Read this Story)
line

Potomac Cleanup

Potomac River Cleanup: Hampshire County Fun Day

At noon on May 7th, 2011 Shawn Ward, Chairman of the Hampshire County Fun Day project pushed a dozen canoes and boats off the boat launch at the Trough General store in rural Romney West Virginia.  Thousands of pounds of trash and scrap metal were removed from the Potomac River.

(Read this Story)
line

RSVP tody!

December 2011 Information Exchange

Tuesday December 13th, 2011, 9:30am (doors open at 9:15)
Samuels Public Library, Front Royal, VA. 9th PWP Information Exchange is free and open to the public.
Topic: Making Projects Successful In a Changing Climate.

(More)
line

Terminology Key

Find definitions to terms and acronyms throughout this newsletter
(Go to key)
line

   
   

Articles:

-Information Exchange

-WIPs in the Bay Watershed

-Mindless Mowing and Gray Infrastructure

- ULTRA- Ex

- Jefferson County Urban Tree Canopy Initiative

-People of the PWP: Judy Okay

-Potomac River Cleanup:

-Terminology Key

 

 

 

Summer PWP Information Exchange

info exchange presentations now online
Presentations Online

Using Forestry Practices to Set and Meet Your TMDL Phase II Goals.

 

 

 

 

Value of Trees:

According to forest hydrologist Dr. Anne Hairston-Strang (MD DNR) trees improve air quality, benefit wildlife habitat, provide shade which substantially lowers cooling costs, and deliver direct economic value 60 or 80 years in the future when you sell the trees for wood. “Planting trees is justifiable on a water quality basis just alone,” explains Anne.

 

8th Information Exchange: Using Forestry to Meet TMDL Goals

ole mink farmOn June 28th, Cacapon Institute hosted the PWP Information Exchange in Thurmont, Maryland, nestled in the mountains near Catoctin Mountain Park.  Ole Mink Farm’s impressive and rustic new conference facility called Reflection Hall was filled with individuals and experts from over 40 organizations.  The Information Exchange focused on the Chesapeake Bay Program Watershed Implementation Plans (WIPs) Phase II and how urban forestry can be used to meet the TMDL goals.  PDF downloads from each of the presentations outlined below can be found on the PWP website Resources Page.

Richard Eskin, Director of Science Services at the Maryland Department of the Environment, started the day off with an in-depth keynote speech introducing the main concepts, background, and development processes of the Phase II WIP.  This presentation stirred a lively debate among members of nonprofits and agencies in the crowd. 

The next presentation was given by a PWP Steering Committee member from the Maryland Department of Natural Resources Forest Service.   Anne Hairston-Strang described how Maryland is using forestry practices to meet their TMDL goals.  For 30 minutes, she introduced a large body of knowledge that other municipalities can use to aid in meeting their TMDL Goals.  She outlined where the proportional pollution loads were coming from in terms of land use and geographical location.  She then showed the audience how Maryland used this information to focus their efforts to be as cost efficient as possible.

Bryan Seipp, Watershed Manager of the Center for Watershed Protection, outlined very specific best management practices and approaches to use trees for stormwater management.  While many of the other presenters explained over arching themes and general strategies, Bryan outlined the nuts and bolts of forestry tools that can be implemented on a small or large scale to achieve numeric water quality goals.  For example, he discussed how to most effectively use tree pits, the benefits and innovations of Silva Cells, how to best use trees in bioretention, and tips on how to grow the biggest trees that will reduce pollution the most.

panel discussionAfter lunch, the Exchange opened up for a panel discussion.  Two municipalities’ representatives and a state forester shared their successes and strategies for lowering their local pollution load.  Don Outen, Natural Resource Manager of Baltimore County Environmental Protection and Sustainability explained how Baltimore City used advanced mapping and GIS techniques to identify the community’s needs and management objectives.  Jennifer Brockman, Director of the Jefferson County, WV Departments of Planning and Zoning, discussed the urban tree canopy plan which is explained in detail in an article below.  Chris Peiffer from the PA DCNR discussed three areas of focus for planned tree canopy improvements in Pennsylvania.  The goal of these panel presentations and discussions was more than disseminating knowledge effectively to the attendees.  The panel discussions stirred thoughtful discussion among leaders in municipalities and localities that succeeded in confronting their pollution load problems.   “It was very helpful to talk to other states and other people and understand what they are doing.  How they are addressing the same issues,” Jennifer Brockman noted. The goal of these panel discussions and the PWP Information Exchange as a whole was to help all partners throughout the watershed be more effective at their jobs, help them network, and be effective agents for pollution reduction.

The day ended with an inspiring keynote speech by Mike Galvin from ULTRA- Ex. This speech is discussed in more detail below in Watershed Implementation Plans, the Clean Water Act and the Bay article in this newsletter.  The Information Exchanges are a great way for experts and concerned individuals to share expertise and knowledge.

The location changes each Information Exchange to cater to the convenience of different partners throughout the watershed.  This summer the attendees enjoyed many creature comforts as they shared expertise and knowledge.  “Thank you! Thanks for lunches, doughnuts and coffee too!” praised Alana Hartman of the West Virginia Department of Environmental Protection.  The event was catered by The Cozy, one of Maryland’s oldest restaurants.  

The next Information Exchange will take place on December 13th at 9:30am (doors open at 9:15) at Samuel Public Library, 330 East Criser Road Front Royal, VA.  The 9th PWP Information Exchange will focus on making projects successful in a changing climate.  Extreme weather such as flooding and severe droughts is becoming more frequent throughout the Potomac River Watershed.  Invasives are spreading, and species are drifting north.  Come gain the tools to make your projects successful into the future.  By popular demand, this Information Exchange will have a greater emphasis on networking.  tree stewardThere will be a few presentations before lunch and all afternoon will be breakout sessions.  Open networking will carry on from 3:00-4:30 PM. This Exchange is hosted by Front Royal/ Warren County Tree Stewards. All are invited to attend.   The event is free and open to the public. RSVP today!

line

Articles:

-Information Exchange

-WIPs in the Bay Watershed

-Mindless Mowing and Gray Infrastructure

- ULTRA- Ex

- Jefferson County Urban Tree Canopy Initiative

-People of the PWP: Judy Okay

-Potomac River Cleanup

-Terminology Key

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

About Mike Galvin

Mike has more than 25 years of experience in arboriculture including 13 years of leadership with MD DNR Forest Service.  Mike is one of seven people in the world named to the 2011 Class of International Society of Arboriculture True Professionals.  He is past president of the Mid-Atlantic Chapter of ISA, has been an ISA Board Certified Arborist and is the recipient of many awards and honors.  In September 2011 Mr. Galvin joined SavATree as Director of the Consulting Group.

 

Watershed Implementation Plans in the Bay Watershed:
The Most Important Restoration Initiative in the World

At the June 28th PWP Information Exchange in Thurmont Maryland, Mike Galvin of the Urban Long-Term Research Areas: Exploratory Research Projects (ULTRA-Ex)  proposed that the Chesapeake Bay TMDL Watershed Implementation Plan (WIP) process is the next innovation that will allow our species to sustain our growth as a civilization.  He predicted that the whole world will watch as the process unfolds in the Chesapeake Bay Watershed.  In the day’s final presentation, he warned that in the long run the only way so many humans can live in such concentrated areas is if we figure out how to use and sustain our natural resources without destroying them.

The audience was filled with individuals from over 40 organizations. Many have been working on the Bay issues for years.  Many already knew the Phase II WIPs that are currently in development by the Bay states and DC are a momentous effort and critical for the future of the Chesapeake Bay. However, no one had put this effort so squarely into the perspective of human existence. 

19th century london
19th century London: no clean water, toilets or sewer treatment

“It took almost the whole of human existence to reach a population in a city of one million people,” stated Mike Galvin.  He explained that, for most of human history, humans have encountered increasing problems and pressures as the population in one area became increasingly concentrated.    In 27 AD Rome became the first city with a million people and by 600 AD it only held 30,000.  It wasn’t until the early 1800s that Beijing and London reached populations of over a million.  Urban areas used to be festering hotbeds of disease, poverty and crime. “By the mid-1800s urban scholars predicted the end of cities as successful human settlements all together,” Mike announced.  “Then a miracle happened.  The human race was saved by science: advances in germ theory and treatment, crime management, and sanitary and stormwater management.”  The urban population skyrocketed.  “Incremental population growth occurred at a head spinning rate,” said Mike Galvin.  By 2006 Tokyo held more than 35 million people.  This year, for the first time in human history, most of the world’s population lives in cities.  Advances in science and best management practices have allowed our population to reach 7 billion. Cuyahoga River

After the exchange, Forest Hydrologist Dr. Anne Hairston-Strang (MD DNR) reminisced about the early years of the environmental movement. “I drove over Cuyahoga River to get back from vacation this week.  Thirty or forty years ago it was on fire.  It was the burning that made people take action,” she said.  The Cuyahoga River fire of 1969 galvanized the public to support clean water and the Clean Water Act was passed in 1972.  

The Clean Water Act has been around for decades. It has been most effective at reducing point sources of pollution.  Today there is a critical need to address non-point source pollution.  Too much nutrient and sediment pollution is getting into our waterways, resulting in vast dead zones in coastal waters.  Mike Galvin explained, “When [the Clean Water Act] got passed, people didn’t really know what to do or how to do it.  After a quarter of a century, we didn’t get where we needed to be.”   The Potomac Watershed and the Chesapeake Bay is still suffering from significant pollution problems.  Mike believes there is a need for more cohesive leadership across jurisdictional boundaries.

Neil Gillies, Executive Director of Cacapon Institute, agrees, “Numerous studies have shown that humans are now the dominant force in the nitrogen cycle, producing more 'available' nitrogen than all natural processes combined.  We move nutrients and fertilizers all over the world and put them on crops.   Our challenge is to keep the fertilizers that enable modern agriculture from running off into our streams and rivers.” One such study can be found here.  The question is: can the human race really manage the nutrients that make our crops grow without killing our own coastal waters?

Mike Galvin told the audience that urban areas need another miracle, another breakthrough that will save us and allow us to sustain our growth as a species.  President Obama’s Executive Order on the Chesapeake Bay can be that breakthrough.  “There is a lot on the table at stake here,” Mike Galvin explained.  “Ignoring these pollution problems could have huge implications for human health, survival, etc.”

Mike Galvin explained that before the Phase II WIP is completed, the regulatory enforcement standards of the TMDL will be finalized.  Once it takes effect, there will be fewer options and wiggle room for decision makers. “It will be something that we have to do, not what we will do when we have the time to fit it in with other priorities,” he said.

Mike Galvin explained that the Chesapeake Bay’s TMDL and the planning process being developed by each jurisdiction in the WIP may be the most important restoration initiative in the world.  Mike Galvin continued, “This is the area that is most able to try to stop too many nutrients and sediments from getting into our waterways.”  This Chesapeake Bay area has the best infrastructure, resources, knowledge, expertise, and political will to deal with this problem once and for all. It is the diligence and dedication of all those working on the WIP that may allow our civilization to continue to grow and prosper into the future. 

line

Articles:

-Information Exchange

-WIPs in the Bay Watershed

-Mindless Mowing and Gray Infrastructure

- ULTRA- Ex

- Jefferson County Urban Tree Canopy Initiative

-People of the PWP: Judy Okay

Potomac River Cleanup

-Terminology Key

 

 

 

 

 

Fast Fact:

Events can be posted on the PWP website by emailing Ben Alexandro

 

 

 

 

 

How is the PWP useful to you?

Jennifer Brockman:
“I was impressed with the group’s wide participation.  It was very helpful to talk to other states and other people and understand what they are doing, how they are addressing the same issues. ” She feels that West Virginia is new to much of this information and is in some ways behind the curve of many of the other states. “The Information Exchange was very useful in playing catch up.  The BMP analysis was very interesting for our planning effort and understanding how you would do that locally.” She said.

Anne Hairston-Strang:
“The PWP makes my job easier. It helps build a larger context for the work we do.  My authorization stops at the state line, but the PWP can work across boundaries.  The PWP lets us learn from each other, coordinate projects, and is a good justification for funders.  All I do is grant funded.  State funded.  All work we do is through grants.  With the PWP Monitoring, we can compare things directly so you’re able to scale to your project.”

 

Mindless Mowing and Gray Infrastructure

mindless mowing
Picture from Don Outen's presentation

While restoration efforts throughout the entire Chesapeake Bay Watershed attempt to transform land into more affective pollution sinks, the acreage of turf grass lawns per capita continues to increase.  Professionals and conscientious volunteers have long struggled with this growing trend in the suburbs to cover as much land as possible with manicured monoculture turf grass.  One of the leaders in this struggle is Don Outen of the Natural Resource Manager Baltimore County Environmental Protection and Sustainability.  According to Don Outen, Baltimore County alone has 7,136 acres of excess lawn where a grass area on a parcel is in excess of 1 acre.  There is a good deal of mindful mowing that is necessary on sports fields, highway safety medians, and other consciously selected areas.  However, PWP partners are suggesting viable solutions to overcome the American obsession with what Don Outen describes as “Mindless Mowing.”  These large areas of needlessly mowed turf grass can contribute substantial loads of pollution to local waterways.   Rather than continuing to manage stormwater with large expensive gray infrastructure that engineers have been using for decades, mindlessly mowed areas can be transformed into relatively inexpensive Low Impact Development (LID).

areas of lawn that can be improved

Mindlessly mowed subdivision with a high potential for LID improvements
Image from Don Outen's presentation

“Benefits from growing turf are a lot different than crops,” explained Mike Galvin of the ULTRA-Ex project.  Although grass does not feed us, it is a status symbol that supports a multi-billion dollar landscaping industry.  According to Global Industry Analysts Inc., the US landscaping service market is expected to reach $80 billion by 2015.  Unfortunately, this turf grass supports almost no wildlife.  It does not reduce as much runoff pollution nor provide many of the same environmental benefits as other landscapes.  Lawns can often become pollution sources as well.  The challenge is transforming this land into something that will reduce pollution in our watersheds while continuing to employ those dependent on the landscaping industry.

According to the US Census Bureau, in 2007, the landscaping industry reported $53,910,432,000 in sales.  The industry grew more than 50% since 2002.   At the same time that huge amounts of resources and billions are spent on turf grass, billions of dollars are spent to manage the pollution that they can cause.   “We build giant engineered concrete structures that don’t really work that well,” Mike said.  For example, concrete channelized ditches,catchment basins and sediment ponds are very expensive. Some gray infrastructure is proven to reduce some types of runoff pollution, but many green infrastructure Low Impact Developments (LIDs) and Best Management Practices (BMP) can be more effective at reducing pollution at a much lower cost. 

According to the EPA, LID is a way to develop or redevelop land to use nature to help manage storm water.  LIDs often are placed as close to the source of the stormwater pollution as possible, reduce impervious surfaces, and try to use stormwater as a resource rather than a waste that requires disposal.  LIDs manage stormwater while attempting to restore the watershed’s ecological and hydrological functions.  Many of these LIDs require some ongoing maintenance.  For example, rain gardens need to be maintained. Pervious surfaces often need to be raked and broken up as debris cakes into an impervious layer on top of them over time.  Urban trees need to be watered, pruned, managed and replaced. 

BMP Transformation

Roll over image depicting how green infrastructure and LID can transform a property
Chris Pieffer DCNR presentation

The TMDL will create both huge needs and opportunities.  Rather than spending vast sums of money mowing and fertilizing lawns, Mike Galvin hopes to see landscapers build and maintain LIDs.  “If we want to continue to employ these people, there is a lot of education needed to broaden these people's experience,” Mike said. “When the government talks about green jobs most people talk about light bulbs and caulking guns, but we need to talk about the real green jobs.”  Mike explained that by transforming the landscaping industry into a LID construction and maintenance industry, the government can create permanent environmentally sustainable jobs. 

 “At end of the day, America needs more innovation.  We need to come up with ways to do it,” said Mike Galvin.  If we are going to implement LID in a more substantial way, then we need a better handle on what is needed for widespread implementation in the country as a whole. 

It is now the perfect time in America for this sort of transformation, because most of the engineered concrete ‘gray’ infrastructure of the country is coming to the end of its lifespan.  According to Mike, “When people are looking at the ticket for gray infrastructure everyone says absolutely not. There has got to be a better way to do it.  We tried the gray infrastructure. Let’s try the green infrastructure.” 

Silva cell

Silva Cells
Images from Bryan Seipp,Center for Watershed Protection,Presentation

Rather than having a few huge engineered structures at a facility, there is an opportunity to replace them with several smaller BMPS such as urban tree canopies, rain gardens and bio retention.  These BMPs can be significantly less expensive including the routine maintenance many require. This need for routine maintenance will mean more steady jobs here in America.  At the Summer 2011 Information Exchange, several partners outlined how trees and LID can be used to replace traditional gray infrastructure.  Bryan Seipp, Watershed Manager / Professional Forester at the Center for Watershed Protection, explained how Silva Cells might be used to create loose and permeable areas underground to allow bio retention and tree root growth in a substantial way.  Chris Peiffer of the Pennsylvania Department of Conservation and Natural Resources explained that impervious surfaces can be replaced by roof gardens. He explained how each large canopy tree may intercept 59,700 gallons of rain per year and saves about $478.  Trees near buildings save money in cooling costs in the summer.  Trees are relatively inexpensive with a high value of return. Trees are effective storm water management tools and provide air quality benefits. Don Outen described how better forest programs can be implemented to turn turf into trees. 

Forest Hydrologist Dr. Anne Hairston-Strang of the MD DNR Forest Service explained trees will improve water quality and provide numerous other benefits throughout cities. “Trees in urban environments benefit the stream buffers in adjacent areas of land,” Anne explained.  “Urban trees take the edge off a drastically altered urban hydrology.”  If there are trees growing throughout the cities and suburbs, it will have a significant benefit on the nearby streams.  Urban tree canopy will help forest buffers grow and prevent the erosion of the stream banks downstream.  “The larger the trees are the bigger the benefits,” explains Anne.  “This is why tree replacement is really important.  I just hope people still want to hear it after [Hurricane Irene] caused trees to fall on houses.”

LID: Bio retention with trees
Image from Bryan Seipp,Center for Watershed Protection,Presentation

Dr. Anne Hairston-Strang agrees that there is a lot of work to be done. “To the extent that we can knit things back together we should. I don’t think there is any jurisdiction in the world that could fix all of their stormwater discharge issues at once.   The big idea is to integrate infiltration solutions into the ongoing public works project designs to the extent possible.  When communities invest in repairing or replacing infrastructure like roads and pipes, there often is an opportunity to fix some of the problem areas at much lower cost than a stand-alone stormwater retrofit project.  We can start by looking where a little more for project design or infiltration devices could make a big difference in urban runoff.  Even just a bigger planting box for an urban tree can help water quality.”   Anne proposed, “Let’s ameliorate the urban environment.”

Mike Galvin said, “When European settlers first came to the Bay, 95% of the surrounding area was forested and water was clean.  It doesn’t take a rocket scientist to say that nature is good. But we need to get an infrastructure in place to make it happen.  There needs to be partnerships, technical assistance, and some easily usable packages in place.”  Mindless mowing is not going to stop overnight, but the PWP and its partners are working to make LID and BMPs and projects more accessible to people throughout the watershed.  We are working to train the builders of the green infrastructure of tomorrow.  Mike said positively, “It’s going to be tricky, but I always think, if something has got to get done, people will get it done.” 

The TMDL gives this country a prime opportunity to transform the landscaping industry and the old gray infrastructure industry into thriving industries restoring the Potomac River Watershed.

  line

Articles:

-Information Exchange

-WIPs in the Bay Watershed

-Mindless Mowing and Gray Infrastructure

- ULTRA- Ex

- Jefferson County Urban Tree Canopy Initiative

-People of the PWP: Judy Okay

-Potomac River Cleanup

-Terminology Key

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Information in depth:

BES is one of 26 studies established by the National Science Foundation in diverse ecosystems all over the world.  These studies are very long term because many ecological processes and changes occur over a long period of time and need very in-depth studies to understand. 
Learn more

 

 

 

 

 

 

A vision for the future
Bryan Seipp,Center for Watershed Protection

  ULTA-Ex Program

Mike Galvin
Image from DC Life Magazine

Baltimore and Washington D.C. are two cities with roughly the same acreage and occupy the same general geographic region.  However, in the last several years they have diverged in prosperity.  Washington DC has thrived, while much of Baltimore has struggled.   Washington D.C. has been doing well despite the recession and has a healthy middle class population.  DC has been able to draw resources and is gaining in median income while Baltimore is consistently shedding jobs and shrinking in population.  According to Mike Galvin, Baltimore has five times as many vacant lots as D.C. 

The National Science Foundation and the USDA Forest Service are funding the Urban Long-Term Research Areas: Exploratory Research Projects (ULTRA-Ex) to try to find out if the difference in the cities’ local environments contribute to the disparate prosperity of these two cities.  ULTRA-Ex provides scientists like Mike Galvin the support needed to research the dynamic interactions between people and natural ecosystems in urban settings.

2010 US Census Bureau information

Washington DC

Baltimore

Area (square miles)

61.4

80.8

Population in 2010

601,723

620,961

Population in 2000

572,055

651,154

Growth percentage

5.2%

-4.6%

Median household income

$58,906

$38,458

Percent of residents over 25 years old with a bachelor degree or higher

47.1%

24.9%

Percent of tree canopy cover
(according to Mike Galvin and Casey Trees)

35%

27%

This study builds on three decades of data gathered in the Long- Term Ecological Research (LTER) projects of the National Science Foundation.  One of these LTER projects known as The Baltimore Ecosystem Study (BES) was undertaken to research the ecological system of Baltimore.  They studied how it changes over time while incorporating the culture and social sciences of the area.  Understanding the urban environment requires understanding various aspects of how people in different settings interact with each other and their environment.  For example, the study seeks to find how large numbers of abandoned property affects the population. 

Baltimore Street with low UTC and all impervious Surface. Image taken from Google Street View

This study explores who is forced to live near what Mike refers to as 'environmental disamenities.'  “When a smelting plant is built in a neighborhood in Baltimore, all the negatives of that [plant] aren’t realized the day the doors open.  But now, 20 or 40 years out, the people in the surrounding area are feeling it,” explained Mike.  “We are looking at how people are interacting with the ecosystem.”  People are a part of the ecosystem and affected by it in seemingly unrelated ways. 

Mike is studying the urban tree canopies of the cities to find what affects the resulting changes in local environment have on the quality of life of people in each of these cities.  According to Mike, 35% of Washington D.C. is covered by tree canopies versus 27% of Baltimore city is shaded by trees.  To reach the same percentage of tree cover, Baltimore would need about 6.5 square miles more of forested tree canopy cover over its 80.8 square mile municipality.  Using the USDA Forest Service Standard of 109 trees equals one acre of tree canopy, this means that about 451,000 trees are absent from Baltimore despite the high number of abandoned lots.  Increasing the tree canopy cover could have a profound effect on Baltimore.

Horror of Vacant lots

Mike mentions there are 5 times as many ‘vacant lots’ in Baltimore as there is in D.C.   Baltimore isn’t in the Potomac Basin but I lived there from 1989 till 2006 so let me explain why vacant lots are such a problem.  They are far from benign ‘open space’ or ‘undeveloped land’.  They are the worst of the worst type of abandonment.  They are killing Baltimore’s neighborhoods. 

I found a man shot in the head and dying one door up from my house in a vacant lot.  As President of Union Square I fought to keep abandonments from being demolished and becoming vacant lots.  As an urban forester with Parks & People Foundation I fought to mitigate the ecological nightmare they bring including polluted stormwater runoff, lead dust, dumping grounds and havens for invasive species.  Vacant lots, since they are effectively the remnants of abandoned homes imploded into their own basements, are beset with lead paint contamination and likely heavy metals from a legacy of soot from coal burning, industrial pollution, and leaded gasoline.  They can contain other hazards such as asbestos.  Sometime the residential oil heater tank is still buried on the site with who know what in it.

Part of the problem with vacant lots is that each one is a unique problem, no one solution fits all.  What was once a proud family home is now a less than worthless impervious pad of crushed rubble and a quagmire of legal property confusion.  One vacant lot could be as small as 15 x 30 square feet so do not misunderstand a city block to be a single ‘vacant lot’.  One block can include 50 or more vacant lots.  Each one has its own liens for the cost of demolishing, back taxes, and water & utilities; sometime private property liens too.  Even if a developer wanted to improve a block of vacant lots, first they would have to wade through dozens of individual liens representing tens of thousands of dollars in debt.

To make an arborist analogy, think of vacant lots as the worst sort of invasive species – they are nearly impossible to stop once they start spreading, intractable once established, and they smother out any beneficial land use.

Written by Frank Rodgers

Forest Hydrologist Dr. Anne Hairston-Strang (MD DNR) explained, “The really good thing about trees are the multiple benefits, not only the nitrogen and phosphorus reduction benefits but also have air quality and wildlife habitat benefits.”   

Mike and other researchers have just begun trying to make sense of the vast amount of information, and they are still far from definitive conclusions.  Mike explained, “There is not a lot you can do in only a two year grant.  We are setting up a lot of data sets, and we are more than halfway through.” 

“The preliminary data found that mortality of trees are clumped.  Trees and species are not dying in equal rates across the city.  Is it because of the land?  Is it because socioeconomic status of the area?” Mike asked.

There are still a lot of unanswered questions in the Potomac River Watershed, but the work that Mike Galvin and other experts have done may aid in finally breaking down the misconception that the environment is some place far removed from human contact.  ULTRA–Ex will help people in the watershed and the rest of the world truly understand how we are a part of the environment that we depend on for a prosperous and healthy life. 

line

Articles:

-Information Exchange

-Urban Forestry

-Mindless Mowing and Gray Infrastructure

- ULTRA- Ex

- Jefferson County Urban Tree Canopy Initiative

-People of the PWP: Judy Okay

-Potomac River Cleanup

-Terminology Key

 

 

 

 

Tree Planting Tip:

One of the main reasons that planted trees die is that they are planted too deep.  Many nurseries plant the trees too deep in the pots so they are often delivered already too deep.  Make sure the root collar is visible above the dirt and mulch when the tree is planted.

 

Phrase to Remember:

To Low Never Grow.

To High, Never Die.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Jefferson County Tree Plantings

This year, Shepherd University student Doug Griffith interned with the Jefferson County Urban Tree Canopy Initiative.  He helped plant 450 trees of 26 different native species at five public schools, two public parks and Shepherd University.  The PWP and Cacapon Institute also supported an educational program and tree planting at Wildwood Middle school in Jefferson County, WV.  Students helped plant ten 6-8' balled and burlap eastern red bud trees on their school grounds. The school plantings were coupled with an educational component where students learned about the many benefits trees provide.  Doug arranged for Herb Peddicord, W.V. Chesapeake Bay Forester, and Frank Rodgers, Cacapon Institute Director of Education & Outreach, to teach students how stormwater runoff causes erosion and leads to sediment pollution, a problem they were helping to solve by planting trees at their school.

 

The PWP Aids Jefferson County with Urban Tree Canopy Initiative
Jefferson County, WV

Jefferson County, in wild and wonderful West Virginia, may not come to mind as an area that needs an Urban Tree Canopy (UTC) plan.  Many D.C. and Baltimore residents see Jefferson as a country retreat. It is a surprise to most that Jefferson County actually has fewer trees and often has worse air quality than inner city Washington D.C.  The USDA Forest Service even ranked Jefferson County among the highest priority counties in the Chesapeake Bay Watershed in its first National Planting Priority Index.  This highly agricultural county has a long trend of dwindling tree numbers.  According to the US Census Bureau, the human population grew 27% between 2000 and 2010.  However, thanks to the hard work of Jennifer Brockman, Jefferson County's Director of the Departments of Planning and Zoning, dedicated individuals all over the county, and PWP Partners, residents may not have to choose between development and environmental sustainability. 

PWP partners spearheaded the development of an initiative that will not only help the county and its municipalities reach their Chesapeake Bay TMDL goals, but will also provide benefits to the local communities.  Jennifer Brockman explained,   “There are benefits to communities who put trees as a priority in developing areas and have tree maintenance plans. Those communities have a better quality of life overall.” 

Thanks to extensive help from many PWP partners, most notably the WV Division of Forestry, Cacapon Institute, and the USDA Forest Service at the Chesapeake Bay Program,  Jefferson County is one of only nine counties in the entire Bay Watershed to have completed a county-wide assessment. 

This in-depth and innovative tree canopy assessment started in 2009 with funding from the Chesapeake Bay Program through the WV Potomac Tributary Strategy Implementation Team.  “Really, Jefferson County is a perfect storm of information and knowledge,” explained Jennifer.  There was already a lot of data on this county that had been collected by different federal agencies.  The County contracted with the University of Vermont with funds from the 1st Annual West Virginia Division of Forestry (WV DOF) Chesapeake Bay Tree Planting Grant to do a precise, county-wide assessment. The University of Vermont analysis was an entire land coverage analysis that included a tree coverage element.  The assessment used optical remote sensing technology known as Light Detection and Radar (LIDAR) and high resolution (less than one meter) infrared imaging the National Agriculture Inventory Program (NAIP).  “The county GIS team did a great job taking all this available data and overlaying the different maps with property information to identify priority lands for planning,” praised Jennifer.  “All this information that we compiled helps us fine tune where these priority areas for urban tree canopies are.”

With this wealth of information and knowledge, the next step was to gather representatives from the five municipalities in Jefferson County and write a feasible and executable UTC Plan.  The final overall goal is to increase the tree canopy of the county as a whole by one percent in the next 20 years.  There are currently 50,603 acres of existing tree canopies in Jefferson County. Using the USDA Forest Service Standard of 109 trees equals one acre of tree canopy, this means 55,158 new trees need to grow and thrive while the county is developing at the second fastest rate in the state.  Not all of these trees need to be planted manually.  Areas that are reforested naturally will be counted.

“Jefferson County is one of the few areas in West Virginia that is growing rapidly.  Although development usually causes huge problems for watersheds as water purifying forests are replaced by impervious surfaces, a balance can be struck here in Jefferson County,” explained Jennifer.

Writing the UTC Plan is a multi-step process.  On the county level it focuses on developing UTC in riparian corridors, along roadways, and in areas of new development.  The UTC Plan differentiates the five major municipalities of Bolivar, Charles Town, Harpers Ferry, Ranson, and Shepherdstown.  The planning committees of each municipality are involved along with the Tree Boards of Charles Town, Shepherdstown and Harpers Ferry.  Allegany Power was engaged because of its obvious interest in tree-utility conflicts.  “The county and municipalities are working together and have been very committed,” explained Jennifer. 

For the UTC Plan to be both effective and popular it is essential to understand that each municipality has different needs and goals for UTC.  Harpers Ferry, with 69% tree canopy, will have much different approaches than Ranson that has 15% canopy.  Harpers Ferry might concentrate on maintaining their trees, while Ranson might concentrate on planting trees. In the draft UTC Plan, each municipality recognizes that they will need expert assistance. PWP has been pleased to be a part of the initiative from the beginning and hopes to continue to have a long term role.

The proposed UTC Plan suggests drafting regulations for new development.  Building on rules that address the quantity of stormwater discharged, municipalities might also address the water quality of stormwater pollution runoff.  This management can help the county meet the Bay TMDL requirements.  It also encourages localities to take advantage of funding opportunities available to them and provides some assistance pointing them towards these avenues of funding.  Outside these cities are unincorporated areas were the county does not own stormwater facilities. “The government really doesn’t own anything.  There are a lot of Home Owner Associations in those areas that we are hoping to coordinate with,” explained Jennifer.

The most important element of any plan of this scale is making sure the public is on board to implement it.  “We have had large public involvement in the community with planning. The public has sent in lots of very detailed and thoughtful comments.  Generally the comments are very supportive of the concept, but they want to make sure the language of the UTC Plan is clear, vetted for discrepancies and reads well.”  The comments and involvement in the community have largely been positive.  Concerns submitted are taken into serious consideration as the UTC Plan’s language is revised.

Agriculture is very important to this community’s economy and culture and some people worry that the county might sacrifice farm land for forest land. “I believe I have represented agriculture well,” Jennifer explained.  Many farmers are worried that current farmland is seen as possible tree planting areas.  They are concerned that the government will push them off their land.  Jefferson County’s UTC Plan does not require any farmers to plant trees on their agricultural land.  The community sees the need for more tree cover in appropriate locations.  Jennifer and PWP partners have done well in assuring the public that trees will be planted where the community as a whole feels they are beneficial.  Like the USDA Forest Service and PWP, Jefferson County believes agricultural interests and forests can coexist.

Three of the five municipalities have voted and given their final amendments to Jennifer Brockman.  Although Ranson and Charles Town have not formally voted on the final UTC Plan’s approval, all the municipalities have been very involved throughout the process.  Jennifer feels comfortable moving forward.    

The planers have incorporated the public comments.  The finalized UTC Plan is being sent to the County Commission with a recommendation for approval. The commissioners may decide to hold their own public hearing before holding a final vote.  After approval, the next step is to incorporate the UTC Plan into the Comprehensive Plan for the county that will be completed in 2014.

Image from Jennifer Brockman's presentation

Jennifer echoes one major piece of advice the PWP knows well.  If your organization or municipality wants to follow in Jefferson County’s footsteps Jennifer suggests, “It is very important to get elected officials and key staff to understand the benefits of trees and how they fit neatly into other planning efforts and would be mutually beneficial.”  The PWP continues to provide assistance, expertise and knowledge to make projects like this possible all over the watershed.  Visit www.potomacpartnership.org for more on UTC assessments and planning.  Email Jennifer for inquiries concerning Jefferson County.

line

Articles:

-Information Exchange

-WIPs in the Bay Watershed

-Mindless Mowing and Gray Infrastructure

- ULTRA- Ex

- Jefferson County Urban Tree Canopy Initiative

-People of the PWP: Judy Okay

-Potomac River Cleanup:

-Terminology Key

Judy Okay Today

Judy retired from the VA DOF in 2011 after completing her five year assignment at the Chesapeake Bay Program.  However, that does not mean that she slowed down at all.  Since 2010, Judy has been president of J&J Okay Consulting, Inc that she founded with her husband, John. Judy Okay remains an influential and indispensable member of the PWP Steering Committee.  Time and time again, Judy has brought about real and lasting change throughout the Potomac Watershed. 

Judy is always seeking new and creative ways to meet the goal of 140 miles of new trees a year for Virginia set by the Chesapeake Bay Program.  “When the buffer program was new everyone was on the bandwagon,” Judy said.  There was a flood of people clamoring to grow their own riparian buffers.  Virginia was planting as much as 400 new miles of riparian buffer a year. “Now money is tighter, there are fewer personnel campaigning, and getting a commitment from people is harder,” Judy said.  The original interested individuals have been served.  All the low hanging fruit have already been picked with buffers planted where they easily fit and are accepted.  However, she suggests, PWP needs to look beyond traditional methods so we can keep expanding buffers into new areas.

People of the PWP: Judy Okay
Changing the Culture and Improving Quality of Life through PWP

Judy OkayJudy Okay is an inspirational leader and innovator who has been with PWP since its inception in 2000.  She helped make the PWP possible and continues to breathe new life into the partnership.  The original PWP grant from the USDA Forest Service included over $100,000 a year for projects across the watershed.  Judy helped develop the monitoring protocol for those projects.  The work monitoring riparian projects played a crucial role in understanding how riparian plantings were faring at the time, how successful they would be in the long run, and how site maintenance should be conducted.  “We incorporate all these pieces of information so that we are not comparing apples and oranges,” Judy said.   Thanks to over ten years of the monitoring work, PWP has made beneficial adjustments to templates for riparian plantings and USDA-CREP projects.  Information was recorded about which species of trees survive in which areas, the best diameters of trees to plant, how to adjust the number of trees that should be planted per acre, developed stocking methods, and more. 

PWP continues to play an important role.  “Lots of good wouldn’t have happened without the PWP,” explained Judy.  For example, Maryland does a lot of monitoring of riparian areas today modeled after the original PWP work.  PWP funded the planting of several rain gardens in Virginia last decade.  “No one had really heard much about rain gardens in Virginia before that.  Now they are crazy for them,” exclaimed Judy.  Judy believes that the PWP played a large role in introducing rain gardens into the Shenandoah Valley. 

Judy's planting
Images from Judy's restoration projects
Judy's planting

Judy explained that there are a lot of big challenges facing the country and our communities right now.  “My biggest concerns are the current political climate for environmental work and the financial tug of war after the same pot of money.  I hate to see so many organizations on the edge right now.”  Judy feels the PWP still has much to offer environmental organizations and communities. “The Potomac Watershed Partnership is a way to get projects completed and restoration on land that any one group can’t do alone,” said Judy Okay. “PWP becomes more than what everyone is working on. It is more than that.  PWP changes quality of life.  It makes a change in the way people approach things.” 

Judy Okay is reluctant to take too much credit for the PWP’s success.  She points out that the Steering Committee and other partners deserve the real recognition.  The USDA Forest Service’s Sally Claggett and Tom Bailey have been involved from the start and all the state foresters, Anne Hairston-Strang, Matt Poirot, Tracy Coulter, and Herb Peddicord, play important roles too.  Heather Montgomery, who was the Potomac Conservancy’s point person, was a big part of the PWP expanding into the Shenandoah Valley.  According to Judy, the PWP rarely had influence outside of Maryland or the Frederick area before Heather Montgomery spread networks throughout the watershed including the Shenandoah Valley.  Cacapon Institute is continuing the PWP expansion into the Highlands of West Virginia.

The USDA Forest Service originally funded 11 watershed partnerships that funneled hundreds of thousands of dollars to restoration projects across the country. Out of the original 11 watershed partnerships, the PWP is the only one still functioning.   Today the partnership has grown into a hub of expertise and connections. Judy also looks to the PWP as an opportunity to build monetary capacity.  Restoration ProjectTogether partners are developing ways to find grants, funding, and make projects possible. According to Judy Okay, grants applications with more partners and a larger number of underwriting organizations have a greater probability of being successful.

In 2011 PWP Steering Committee members and partners collaborated on several proposals in response to the USDA Forest Service competitive grants RFP.  Currently the state forestry offices in MD, PA, VA & WV and longtime PWP non-profits, Cacapon Institute & Potomac Conservancy have secured funding and are working on what Anne Hairston-Strang has dubbed “Potomac Trees for TMDLs.”

line

Articles:

-Information Exchange

-WIPs in the Bay Watershed

-Mindless Mowing and Gray Infrastructure

- ULTRA- Ex

- Jefferson County Urban Tree Canopy Initiative

-People of the PWP: Judy Okay

-Potomac River Cleanup:

-Terminology Key

 

 

 

 

 

 

trash hauled

Multiple tons of trash was removed from the Potomac and several hundred pounds were recycled.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Hampshire County Fun Day Potomac River Cleanup
Multimedia Page

At noon on May 7th, 2011, Shawn Ward, Project Coordinator of the Hampshire County Fun Day project pushed a dozen canoes provided by the Trough General Store and other boats off the boat launch at the Trough General Store in rural Romney West Virginia.  Armed with paddles, life jackets, matching T-shirts and bright yellow trash bags donated by the Alice Ferguson Foundation, a group of about 30 volunteers went on the hunt. 

Gazing across the Potomac River, the team saw a clear horizontal line between green and brown.  The fresh green of leaves poked out the top of the forest floodplain, while everything below seven feet high was covered with a thick, water-swept spackle of brown leaves on stained garbage. 

This spring had been one of the wettest ever.  “April this year was the second wettest month we’ve recorded since we started recording weather data out here in 1998.  It was wetter than months with major tropical downpours,” said Neil Gillies, Executive Director of the Cacapon Institute.   According to the Cacapon Institute, “April and May 2011, with frequent heavy rains, resulted in at least five over bank events and three actual floods.”  The spring flood waters delivered an enormous amount of nutrients, sediment, leaves and whatever else it could grab on its way into the Potomac River.  By May 7th, the early floods had just subsided.  The river receded to reveal a layer of silt on the trees and mounds of garbage and debris piled on each bend of the river. 

This team was one of several that day, each picking out trash on a different 3-6 mile stretches of the South Branch of the Potomac River.  This first group included Alana Hartman of the West Virginia Department of Environmental Conservation, Brent Walls of the Potomac Riverkeeper along with wife, kids, and father, Ben Alexandro of Cacapon Institute, community members, volunteers, and church groups.

In total, nearly 50 miles of the river reaching from Trough General Store to Greenspring, WV was cleaned on May 7th.  Partners from all over the watershed gathered to make the river more beautiful.  HCFDP had basic commitments for this project from: Create the Good, American Rivers, Inc., West Virginia Department of Natural Resources, West Virginia Department of Environmental Protection, West Virginia Development Office, Potomac Valley Conservation District and several businesses in and around Hampshire County.  Shawn Ward pulled together 89 sponsors to make the cleanup possible. Springfield and Romney Fire Departments patrolled river with rescue boats to make sure everyone was safe.   The Army National Guard helped to man registration stations as well as collect and haul the trash at designated drop-off points throughout the river.  Shawn hoped that this cleanup would help inspire others to restore the environment of their local communities.

This was the first river cleanup of the Fun Day project organized.  Despite how well any event is planned, it is impossible to know what unforeseen events might suddenly occur on the day of the event.  The day got off to a rocky start at the Trough General Store registration station when Shawn Ward was late to set up registration.  “Sorry guys, I got stopped by Homeland Security,” Shawn laughed as he finally pulled into the boat access lot with a few government vehicles in toe.  Apparently, the large numbers of Armed Forces that volunteered to help that day attracted the attention of the Department of Homeland Security.  DHS apparently was wondering why so many people had suddenly gathered along remote areas of the Potomac River and stopped Shawn to ask him a few questions.   But none of the hiccups mattered once everyone had gotten on the water.  Throughout the day the US Armed forces and all the volunteers involved in the project were enormously helpful.  Everyone enjoyed the rewarding experience of a free canoe ride while giving back to the community. 

As the community collected trash in this beautiful day on the river, volunteers began to notice the effects local landowners and best management practices were having on the river.   “Wow!  Look at the difference between the shore with trees and the shore with farmland up to the edge of the river,” exclaimed Sandy, a spunky grandmother powering the front of one canoe.  “I’m going to take some pictures of this erosion so everyone can see.”

  eroded potomac shore
Potomac Shore with riparian buffer   Eroded Potomac shore without riparian buffer

After a long afternoon, dozens of canoes, rafts, and other donated floating vessels pulled into shore.  Thousands of pounds of trash and scrap metal were removed.  Items included a discarded propane tank, tires of all sizes, traffic barrels, road signs, boogie boards, lawn chairs, tree tubes, an American flag, windsock, and random large automobile parts.  

This Fun Day event was just one of many organized by various groups and individuals recommended on the PWP site.  To find out about more PWP recommended events, click here.  Check out slides and multimedia from the day’s adventure here.

line

Articles:

-Information Exchange

-WIPs in the Bay Watershed

-Mindless Mowing and Gray Infrastructure

- ULTRA- Ex

- Jefferson County Urban Tree Canopy Initiative

-People of the PWP: Judy Okay

-Potomac River Cleanup:

-Terminology Key

 

Terminology Key

BMPs: Best Management Practices are land management methods that are capable of reducing pollution to our surface and ground waters.
USDA-CREP program: according to the FSA CREP web page, “The Conservation Reserve Enhancement Program (CREP) is a voluntary land retirement program that helps agricultural producers protect environmentally sensitive land, decrease erosion, restore wildlife habitat, and safeguard ground and surface water.”
FSA: Farm Service Agency
Gray Infrastructure: traditionally engineered structures from inanimate substances.  Examples include pipes, mechanical systems, concrete ditches, stormwater catch basins.  According to Lancaster County Smart Growth Toolbox, “Gray infrastructure is the man-made substructure that supports societal functions such as communications, movement, and commerce. Gray infrastructure consists of engineered and built systems.”
Non-point source pollution: a kind of pollution that does not come out of a pipe.  Instead, it can be fertilizer or dirt from farmer’s field or a homeowner’s lawn, oil from a parking lot, manure from a barnyard, or anything else that can be washed from the surface of the land into a lake or stream and cause harm.
Point source pollution
: a kind of pollution that comes out of a pipe- such as a factory or sewage treatment plant.  Point source pollution is regulated by government agencies
Riparian
:   the area of land including plants animals and soil beside a stream or river.
LID:  Stands for ‘Low Impact Development’ According to the EPA LID web page, “LID is an approach to land development (or re-development) that works with nature to manage stormwater as close to its source as possible. LID employs principles such as preserving and recreating natural landscape features, minimizing effective imperviousness to create functional and appealing site drainage that treat stormwater as a resource rather than a waste product.”
TMDL: Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) is the calculation of the maximum amount of a pollutant any body of water can accept and still maintain water quality standards.
UTC: According to the Center for Watershed Protection, an urban tree canopy (UTC) "is the layer of leaves, branches and stems of trees that cover the ground when viewed from above."
Watershed:  the area of land that drains into a body of water.
WIP: Watershed Implementation Plan.

  line
sign up for PWP updates!


Get Involved | Home | About PWP | Partner Projects | Resources | Links | Contact Us | Web Site Map
Cacapon Institute

louis vuitton outlet legend blue 11s legend blue 11s legend blue 11s black infrared 6s uggs black friday jordan 11 legend blue jordan 11 legend blue legend blue 11s jordan 6 black infrared louis vuitton outlet uggs black friday jordan 6 black infrared jordan 6 black infrared louis vuitton outlet jordan 11 legend blue black infrared 6s michael kors outlet black infrared 6s jordan 11 legend blue lebron 11 lebron 11 coach black friday barons 13s jordan 13 infrared 23 north face black friday barons 13s jordan 13 Hologram jordan retro 11 jordan 13 Hologram north face black friday jordan 13 3m reflective jordan 13 3m reflective barons 13s 3m 13s barons 13s michael kors black friday jordan 13 barons jordan 13 Hologram barons 13s black infrared 6s black infrared 6s beats by dre cheap jordan 11 legend blue jordan 6 black infrared black infrared 6s black infrared 6s michael kors outlet online jordan 11 legend blue louis vuitton outlet black infrared 6s michael kors outlet legend blue 11s jordan 6 black infrared coach factory outlet michael kors outlet jordan 6 black infrared legend blue 11s legend blue 11s legend blue 11s 3m 13s barons 13s jordan 13 barons 3m 13s Hologram 13s jordan 13 barons barons 13s jordan 13 Hologram jordan 13 3m 3m 13s barons 13s Hologram 13s jordan 13 barons jordan 13 infrared 23 infrared 23 13s jordan 13 Hologram jordan 13 barons 3m reflective 13s jordan 13 Hologram jordan 13 3m reflective jordan 11 legend blue black infrared 6s jordan 11 legend blue legend blue 11s jordan 11 legend blue black infrared 6s legend blue 11s michael kors outlet online jordan 6 black infrared black infrared 6s michael kors outlet black infrared 6s uggs black friday jordan 11 legend blue jordan 6 black infrared black infrared 6s black infrared 6s coach factory outlet jordan 11 legend blue jordan 11 legend blue infrared 23 13s jordan 13 infrared 23 jordan 13 Hologram jordan 13 3m reflective beats by dre black friday lebron 12 jordan 13 bred jordan 13 Hologram 3m 13s 3m 13s 3m 13s jordan 13 Hologram barons 13s jordan 13 3m jordan 13 Hologram infrared 23 13s jordan 13 3m jordan 13 barons jordan 13 3m reflective 3m 13s louis vuitton outlet jordan 11 legend blue jordan 11 legend blue jordan 6 black infrared uggs black friday michael kors outlet legend blue 11s legend blue 11s louis vuitton outlet jordan 11 legend blue jordan 6 black infrared black infrared 6s jordan 6 black infrared louis vuitton outlet louis vuitton outlet louis vuitton outlet louis vuitton outlet michael kors outlet online uggs black friday louis vuitton outlet 3m 13s jordan 13 bred jordan 13 bred barons 13s coach black friday jordan 13 bred 3m 13s bred 13s jordan 13 Hologram jordan 13 Hologram jordan 13 bred jordan 13 3m barons 13s bred 13s barons 13s 3m 13s jordan retro 11 coach black friday jordan 13 infrared 23 jordan 13 infrared 23 black infrared 6s jordan 6 black infrared louis vuitton outlet louis vuitton outlet louis vuitton outlet louis vuitton outlet michael kors outlet black infrared 6s michael kors outlet legend blue 11s uggs black friday black infrared 6s beats by dre black friday louis vuitton outlet louis vuitton outlet uggs black friday legend blue 11s beats by dre black friday jordan 6 black infrared jordan 11 legend blue barons 13s bred 13s jordan 13 3m barons 13s 3m 13s jordan retro 11 jordan 13 infrared 23 jordan 13 3m reflective jordan 13 Hologram Hologram 13s michael kors black friday 3m reflective 13s michael kors black friday Hologram 13s jordan 13 infrared 23 jordan 13 3m coach black friday bred 13s jordan 13 barons jordan 13 barons uggs black friday coach factory outlet louis vuitton outlet black infrared 6s michael kors outlet louis vuitton outlet legend blue 11s michael kors outlet michael kors outlet louis vuitton outlet uggs black friday beats by dre black friday michael kors outlet jordan 11 legend blue michael kors outlet legend blue 11s legend blue 11s louis vuitton outlet michael kors outlet online jordan 11 legend blue north face black friday jordan 13 infrared 23 lebron 11 jordan 13 barons beats by dre black friday Hologram 13s Hologram 13s jordan 13 barons 3m 13s 3m reflective 13s barons 13s jordan 13 3m reflective barons 13s 3m reflective 13s barons 13s bred 13s infrared 23 13s barons 13s jordan 13 3m reflective barons 13s black infrared 6s louis vuitton outlet jordan 11 legend blue legend blue 11s legend blue 11s black infrared 6s louis vuitton outlet louis vuitton outlet jordan 6 black infrared jordan 6 black infrared jordan 11 legend blue jordan 11 legend blue black infrared 6s michael kors outlet black infrared 6s jordan 11 legend blue louis vuitton outlet louis vuitton outlet louis vuitton outlet jordan 11 legend blue bred 13s coach black friday barons 13s jordan 13 Hologram michael kors black friday north face black friday jordan 13 3m barons 13s michael kors black friday jordan 13 Hologram coach black friday 3m 13s 3m reflective 13s jordan 13 barons coach black friday jordan 13 Hologram jordan 13 barons jordan retro 11 jordan 13 3m jordan 13 3m reflective